JUDEO-SPANISH IN STANDARD LANGUAGE CULTURES: MINORITY/DOMINATED LANGUAGES AND LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY
The status and sustainability of minority/dominated languages in the 21st century are very much influenced by general and language ideologies of times gone by. Namely, Eurocentric modernity-driven language policy and planning, which result in the formation of standard language culture ideologies, are at the core of the cultural, political and historical frameworks which, since the 19th century, have influenced the relationship between majority (standardized) languages and minority/dominated languages spoken in political entities recognized as nation-states in Europe. It is within
this framework of standard language cultures (Milroy, 2001) that the history, the loss, and the possible revitalization of Judeo-Spanish can and should be understood.